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Ontwerpen voor offshore wind constructies Ontwerpen voor offshore wind constructies
To meet growing energy demands, the Kyoto protocol and the much desired
diversification of supply, wind energy has become a mainstream source of energy in the
EU. Cost wise it is already competing with gas fired electricity. In the last decade wind
moved offshore to accommodate even more wind power. The offshore wind resource is
more abundant and of a better quality, resulting in higher electricity output. On the other
hand, the cost of installing turbines offshore is higher than onshore.
To improve the cost-effectiveness of offshore wind, the risks involved must be known
and mitigated and the critical design parameters must be optimised. From an
engineering point of view, these requirements can be met through the following steps:
- understand the basics of offshore wind turbines
- apply lessons learned from previous projects
- improve design tools.
This thesis focuses on the design of the support structure. First, the basics of offshore
engineering and of wind energy technology are summarized, specifically focused on the
support structure design. Then, an overview is given of four actual offshore wind farm
designs and their details. The design methods were compared mutually and with a
design of a typical offshore oil platform. For most of the design steps, the methodology
is consistent. Only the fatigue damage assessment is done differently for each individual
Fatigue assessment in offshore engineering is done in the frequency domain. This
method can be applied because the wave loads can be effectively linearized. The
advantages of the frequency domain method are the clarity of presentation of
intermediate results and the final outcome as well as the speed of calculation. The
offshore wind industry standard (both onshore and offshore) is to use time domain
simulations, which enables taking all non-linearities of the turbine operation into
account. A disadvantage of this for the design of support structures is that offshore
contractors lack both the aerodynamic knowledge and knowledge of the turbine details
to use the full time domain simulation method to calculate the total fatigue damage. In
this thesis a frequency domain method is developed to solve this problem. An interface
between turbine manufacturer and offshore contractor is created that avoids the need to
transfer commercially sensitive turbine details. The offshore contractor can further
optimise the support structures with the software packages he normally uses.
The frequency domain method is tested for the Blyth offshore wind turbines, for which
a validated computer model and on-site measurements were available. Further, the


Size 6.25 MB
Language English
Author Jan van der Tempel